The proper ratio and type of nutrients will make your plants grow lush and vigorous. Nutrients are like food to your plants.
When it comes to nutrients there are 3 types.
Macro-nutrients are Nitrogen(N), Phosphorus(P), and Potassium(K). This is what you see on nutrient containers as 10-15-10. This is a ratio of 10(N)-15(P)-10(K).
Secondary nutrients are Calcium(Ca), Magnesium(Mg), and Sulfur(S).
Micro-nutrients are Boron(B), Zinc(Zn), Copper(Cu), Manganese(Mn), Iron(Fe), Chloride(Cl), Molybdenum(Mo).
When it comes to base nutrients a good quality nutrient system usually comes in a 3 part system. Example A,B,C or Micro, Veg, Bloom, etc. These 3 part systems can be mixed into water with different ratios at different plant growth stages for great results. There are also usually different types of boosters that can be added for optimal results. Example Ca-Mg(usually more of these elements are need in a coco coir medium), Massive Bloom(For more flowering),etc. PH of nutrient solution should also be adjusted accordingly. It is important to follow nutrient mix rate as per manufacturer.